Oil and Gas in Seychelles

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Oil and Gas in Seychelles

Beitrag von mare-mundi Redaktion » 19 Dez 2011 14:53

Oil and Gas in Seychelles

:arrow: http://www.mbendi.com/indy/oilg/af/se/p0005.htm

Oil and Gas in Seychelles

Upstream History
Companies and Organisations (2)
Other Pages for Oil and Gas in Seychelles (1)
Directories for Oil and Gas in Seychelles
Industry Sector Profiles for Oil and Gas in Seychelles (3)
Other Industries in Seychelles (36)

The downstream oil industry in the Republic of the Seychelles is an important element in the
economy of the country accounting for over 25% of its imports and supplying 95% of its
commercial energy consumption needs.
The Seychelles has no upstream oil industry. Since the 1970s some geophysical and
geological exploration has taken place with minor exploration drilling. The geochemical
analyses and exploration data from its offshore acreage indicate potential for commercial
In January 2005 the government of the Seychelle has accepted a bid from a US prospecting
company to search for oil in its waters, ending a nearly 10-year hiatus in petroleum
exploration. The Seychelles National Oil Company (SNOC) and the Seychelles Petroleum
Company (SEPEC) approved an offer from PetroQuest International an energy development
firm based in the southern US state of Louisiana. Under the terms of the agreement,
PetroQuest will explore for oil and natural gas in a 30 000-square kilometre area in the
Seychelles' southern shelf. Four locations have been approved for exploration: the Constant
and Topaz banks and the waters surrounding the Farquhar and Coetivy island groups.
The industry is regulated by the Minister of Industry. The current Minister of Industry is Mr
Ralph Adam.

Upstream History
While Seychelles as yet has no upstream oil industry, the results of geophysical surveys,
geochemical analyses and exploration data from its offshore acreage indicate potential for
commercial production. The Seychelles National Oil Company (SNOC), a state-owned entity
established in 1984 to implement petroleum policies and advise the Government in dealing
with petroleum-related activities, has been active in publicising the hydrocarbon potential of
the Seychelles to the international oil community. Enterprise Oil has so far drilled an appraisal
well in the southern Constant Bank offshore area although this well was declared dry in Aug
The Seychelles Model Petroleum Agreement is designed to create a favourable environment
for investment in petroleum exploration by oil companies. Its aim is to maintain a flexible
package to encourage the development of small fields and to ensure a fair division of returns
for production from profitable fields.
Seychelles is a modern state with good infrastructure to facilitate petroleum operation
activities. SNOC, Seychelles National Oil Company, has recently released and interpreted
new data, and the new geological models have established interesting exploration
opportunities. This information is highlighted in a Technical Atlas and SNOC is making this
and other data available to the industry.
The economic terms for exploration and production in Seychelles are laid down in a modern
concession type model agreement and the major provisions are summarised in this brochure.
SNOC will be pleased to visit your company or, if you prefer, you are welcome to Seychelles
to discuss petroleum exploration opportunities and examine the data.

06.Dec.2011: Energy Congress in Africa - Dakar, Senegal

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http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article- ... ggestgiant.
Seismic anomalies suggest giant oil fields may lie off Seychelles.

The Oil and Gas Journal
| August 29, 1994 | Plummer, Phil | Copyright
Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 92, no. 35, pp.93-97, 29 Aug 1994
Seismic responses interpretable as direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) occur within the
Seychelles offshore stratigraphy at a number of locations. These responses range from bright
and/or flat spots to phase changes and gas chimneys.
In some cases these responses occur in combination, while elsewhere they coincide with other
indicators of hydrocarbon migration and/or seepage, such as well shows, gas sniffer
anomalies, and/or sea surface UV fluorescence anomalies.
The recognition of hydrocarbon generation, migration, and seepage by such a variety of
indicators greatly reduces the exploration risk in frontier and underexplored areas such as
offshore Seychelles. Indeed the presence of hydrocarbon seepage was a crucial factor in the
early days of onshore oil exploration,(1) and it is still used successfully as an active
exploration technique.2
In offshore regions such hydrocarbon migration and seepage can be inferred from the
repeatability of indications, either on different vintages of any one data type (e.g. seismic) or
on data from a variety of techniques over any one area. A number of such indicators have
previously been reported from the Seychelles offshore.3
This article correlates examples of DHIs from seismic data over the western and southeastern
shelves of the Seychelles plateau with other indicators of hydrocarbon migration (Fig. 1) and
alludes to the presence of potentially very large hydrocarbon accumulations.
Western shelf
DHIs are evident on seismic …
Evidence of actively migrating hydrocarbons found off Seychelles.
The Oil and Gas Journal
| August 02, 1993 | Plummer, Phillip S. | Copyright
Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 91, no. 31, pp.83-87, 02 Aug 1993
Various exploration data from the offshore Seychelles frontier province indicate the presence
of an actively generating oil kitchen. These data include the regular occurrence of tarballs on
a number of beaches, migrant hydrocarbon shows in all three exploratory wells, and various
geosurvey anomalies, specifically from gas sniffer, ultraviolet fluorescence, and seismic
surveys (Fig. 1).
The results of geochemical analyses from numerous tarballs conducted over the past 15 years
indicate that actively flowing seepage is occurring locally from at least two mature source
rocks.(1) These source rocks are likely to be Mesozoic in age with one dominated by marine
algal sapropels and the other by landplant derived kerogens with varying degrees of included
marine organic matter. One of these source rocks may be a carbonate.
More recent analyses of an extensive occurrence of such tarbails on the northwest coast of
Mahe Island have confirmed this result. These tarballs appeared after two days of blustery
northwest winds and were very fresh, displaying a high saturates percentage and full alkane
suite from [C.sub.12] to[ C.sub.36].
With phytane/pristane greater than one; no triterpanes diagnostic of evaporitic or terrestrial
organic matter; and a mature sterane ratio dominated by [C.SUB.27], plus low abundances of
[C.SUB.28] and rearranged steranes, the tarballs are concluded to have originated from a
mature marine, probably carbonate source rock dominated by algal sapropels of either late
Paleozoic or early Mesozoic age.(2)
Three exploratory wells drilled by Amoco in 1980-81 at the western extremity of the western
shelf (Fig. 1) are to date the only wells off Seychelles.
Collectively the wells penetrated a sequence of Tertiary carbonates, Upper
Cretaceous/Paleocene volcanics (Deccan equivalents), Middle Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous
marine clastics of drift tectonic origin, and late Triassic to early middle Jurassic continental
clastics of rift origin …
Seychelles beach tars, well oil tied to same source rock.
The Oil and Gas Journal
| March 20, 1995 | Plummer, Phil | Copyright
Oil & Gas Journal, vol. 93, no. 12, pp.115-117, 20 Mar 1995
Geochemical analyses of beach-stranded tars from Seychelles can be correlated to comparable
analyses of an oil sample from a well in the Seychelles offshore.
The analyses also enable the precursor source rock to be characterized. Such a source rock
was encountered in the three offshore wells (Fig. 1) and is extensively developed to the west
and south of the granitic islands.
Enterprise Oil plc, London, plans to drill a well off Seychelles in second half 1995.
The first samples of beachstranded tar in Seychelles were collected from Coetivy Island in
1978. They were subjected to analysis of nC15+ saturates by gas chromatography (GC),
which gave a bimodal alkane distribution with peaks at n-C26 and n-C35. However, no
interpretation of precursor source rocks was attempted.
Sporadic collections of such tars have been made subsequently from Coetivy, as well as the
islands of Mahe, Praslin, La Digue, Silhouette, and Ste. Anne in the central granitic group,

The large granitic islands of the Seychelles Archipelago represent emergent peaks of a
microcontinent in the western Indian Ocean. The complexity of the tectonic evolution of the
Seychelles plateau is due to the imposition of three phases of rifting and drifting that isolated
the microcontinent from the centre of Gondwana.
The continental margin of the Western Shelf of Seychelles possibly began forming during the
Permo-Carboniferous time as part of the early Karoo/Gondwana rift system. This western
continental margin can be reconstructed to a position adjacent to Somalia and as a northern
extension of Madagascar prior to drifting from Africa in the Upper Jurassic.
The Karoo/Gondwana Sequence Equivalents in Seychelles consist of sandstones and
mudstones faulted against the Precambrian granitic basement.
After transgression during the Middle Jurassic, marine shales dominated deposition in deep
basin areas while interbedded shales, mudstones and sandstones are characteristic of the
shallower section. An oolitic bed forms a Middle Jurassic marker horizon.
A second phase of rifting occurred during the mid Cretaceous when India and Seychelles
separated from Madagascar. The Madagascar landmass acted as a major sediment source for
the Seychelles microcontinent during this period.
The third and final rift phase occurred in the latest Cretaceous with the drift between
Seychelles and India initiating during the early Paleocene. The Tertiary succession is
characterised by thick shelf carbonates with local reef developments.

Exploration History
The turn of the 1970's witnessed the first reflection seismic in the region when ExxonMobil
(then Mobil) included the main Seychelles Bank, and touched many of the lesser banks, on a
regional survey from East Africa to Saya de Malha. Their findings, coupled with 500 km of
reconnaissance lines by Burmah Oil Co. over the main bank, revealed a recognizable block
faulted sequence overlain by an unfaulted sequence, comparable to a rift-drift succession,
with the sedimentary section reaching at least 6 km in thickness.
An influx of petroleum companies occurred in 1977 when three Petroleum Agreements were
signed with Oxoco, Siebens and a Burmah Oil-led consortium. However, following some
6,400 km of seismic acquisition between 1977 and 1979, the interpretation of which revealed
the presence of both structural and stratigraphic leads, and despite the conclusion from
tarballs, collected and analysed from Coetivy Island, that their source was most probably
local, only Amoco from the Burmah consortium was prepared to commit to a drilling phase.
Although the three subsequent wells were plugged and abandoned, all encountered
hydrocarbon shows. Also, post-mortems revealed that none of the wells were valid tests, as
Owen Bank A-1 failed to reach the objective; Reith Bank-1 had no seal atop the primary
objective; and Seagull Shoals-1 was drilled on a structural nose opening to the south-east.
Nevertheless, Amoco remained optimistic and in 1982 commissioned a 27,900 km
aeromagnetic urvey, followed in 1983 by the acquisition of 7,100 km of seismic and
gravity/magnetics data from an extensive reconnaissance survey, and a waterborne
geochemical sniffer survey around the main Seychelles Bank as well as over Adelaide,
Coetivy, Fortune and distant Farquhar Banks. Parallel with Amoco's subsequent interpretation
work in 1984, the newly constituted Seychelles National Oil Company Ltd (SNOC)
contracted an independent interpretation of the data and the "Seychelles Basic Data Report"
was produced in 1985. Despite the presence of significant sedimentary packages and a
number of leads and geochemical anomalies, however, Amoco relinquished their acreage in
1986 during a time of what was general industry upheaval.
That same year, SNOC assumed responsibility for promoting the petroleum potential of
Seychelles and the following year Enterprise Oil signed an Agreement for the South-Eastern
Shelf plus Constant, Coetivy and Fortune Banks, with an option to later include Platte Bank.
In 1987, SNOC commissioned a seismic reprocessing and interpretation contract for the
Western and South shelves which resulted in the "Prospectivity of the Western and Southern
Shelf" report in 1988. Meanwhile, Enterprise acquired and interpreted a 4,870 km seismic
survey and in 1990 opted to enter a drilling phase and take-up the option over Platte. In that
same year, both Texaco and Ultramar (now LASMO) signed Petroleum Agreements.
The three licensees conducted a group-shoot acquisition programme in 1991, gathering 3,675
km of seismic, gravity and magnetics data, and Enterprise also conducted an airborne UV
Seepfinder survey. Currently, Enterrise holds license to acreage amounting to 17% of the
main Seychelles Bank, leaving some 50,000 sq km, plus a further 10,000 sq km of the
Farquhar area, available for exploration activities. Also LASMO is involved in a joint project
aimed at determining more fully the underlying tectonic framework of the region. SNOC has
embarked on a programme to distribute more widely knowledge of the petroleum potential of
the region through promotional material, seminars and technical publications.

Request For Expressions of Interest
The Department of Environment and the Ministry of Land Use and Housing
Background Information: The Divisions of Risk and Disaster Management (DRDM) in the Department of
Environment and the Ministry of Land Use and Housing are working together through the (GFDRR/IBRD)
National Disaster Preparedness and Response Project and the (UNDP/GEF) Sustainable Land Management
project to develop a geological and contour related risk map for the three main islands of Mahe, Praslin and La
Digue and an assessment of area specific risk levels for landslides, flooding and rock falls.
Duties and Responsibilities:
The granitic islands of Seychelles are typified by steep topography descending into the sea or narrow coastal
plains. This has resulted in dense areas of coastal development, often at the foot of steep hills or rock
formations, and the positioning of infrastructure on steep hillsides. This topography and development pattern
coupled with heavy seasonal rains increases the risk of and related vulnerability to land/mudslide events,
flooding and rock falls. Minor events of damage to properties and washing out of roads etc… are quite common
during the rainy season, larger areas of ongoing slippage have been recorded and historically there has been at
least one incident of a major landslide causing extensive loss of life and damage to infrastructure.
There is a need therefore to undertake a geological risk assessment of priority areas as a key means of
mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into the developmental and environment management cycles.
The consultancy is to be undertaken for a period of 10 weeks spread over 4 months.
Work in Seychelles will be facilitated and supported by local counterparts from the Departments Environment
and Land Use and Housing. The GIS centre of MLUH will support the preparation of maps.

1) Prepare a consultancy Implementation Plan in liaison with DRDM/MLUH and submit for approval.
2) Compare and contrast areas of high risk terrain with centres of human habitation and key infrastructure.
3) Score and classify the risks (based on the findings of geological and topographical surveys and data,
historical evidence and available meteorological data and maps) into very high, high, medium and low
parameters for each category i.e. human habitation and key infrastructure.
4) Develop and submit, to DRDM/MLUH for review and circulation to stakeholders, assessment report with
1/25,000 colour coded map representations that delineate risk areas due to land/mud slide, rock fall (including
trajectory maps), with particular emphasis on zones adjacent to residential or key infrastructure areas.
5) Prepare for and facilitate national stakeholder workshop to review report and identify and agree national
priorities for each category
6) Undertake detailed surveys (i.e. site visits, review of maps and aerial photographs) on national priorities, as
determined by stakeholder consultation Develop detailed maps at scale 1:5000 showing the various types of
classified risk zones with accompanying report proposing mitigation or precautionary measures thereby
providing a basis for Government agencies to take action.
7) Submit to DRDM/MLUH for review and circulation to stakeholders.
8) Prepare for, present to and facilitate national stakeholder workshop to finalise report.
9) Revise final report and submit for approval.

1) Implementation plan.
2) Draft Assessment report.
3) National Workshop agenda and documents.
4) Draft detailed survey report, assessment and maps.
5) 2nd National Workshop agenda and documents.
6) Revised report.
7) Approved final report
Information resources:
GIS centre – information on flooding areas and extent of tsunami inundation.
DRDM - various reports e.g. Preliminary geological surveys by Nicholas Bernon 2009-2010.
The National Archives.
Various reports by consultants: eg. BRGM report June 2009.
Local desk review of existing information, identifying prominent geological features and pertinent historical
Team of Consultants
The team of consultants will consist of one or several international specialists on risk mapping and geology in
granitic environments and one or several national geologists working together on this assignment. The present
TOR describes the overall scope of work, the detailed allocation of tasks to the different team members will be
undertaken when preparing the implementation plan.
Contracting of the international specialists and operating costs will be provided by the World Bank project, while
UNDP/GEF will contract the national geologists and provide financial support to the mapping work by GIS.
1) MSc. in Geology/Geophysics/Hydrogeology or equivalent
2) Minimum 10 years of professional experience in undertaking geological surveys and mapping work, with at
least 5 years of work experience in tropical environments
3) Familiarity with all latest technologies and methods for geological risk assessments
4) Experienced and technically proficient with the use and generation of GIS maps.
5) Excellent English written and spoken communication skills.
10 weeks in two separate missions over a time period of 4 months, starting as soon as possible.

Contact at World BanK Headquarters:-
Ellen Tynan, Sr. Environmental Specialist
Task Team Leader
Email: Etynan@worldbank.org


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